Click the title of your latest post and scroll down. There you will see the like button and the sharing buttons on your blog just as I can see them below the posts and above the comments boxes.
Unless you use the P2 theme which is a Twitter-like theme, the front pages of our blogs showcase content. We cannot chnage this. By clicking the post title or the comments link the posts on the front page open on their own page where all comments display. In a new blog one does not have many posts or comments. In an established blog if the comments did not collapse on the front page it would become a mile long in no time flat and page loading time is a page ranking factor. We have only seconds before visitors refuse to wait and click out.