In theory you can do just about anything with a WordPress.org blog, including changing the core code for WordPress itself.
To accomplish your goals, there may be some existing plugins out there that will do what you want to do, but I would recommend you do some research first. You can find all the existing plugins that are available through the WordPress.org plugin repository at http://wordpress.org/plugins/ . There may be other premium plugins as well.
As for linking to a "real" blogger page, you can always create individual pages for your authors in WordPress if you wish.
Finally, I understand you are concerned that setting up accounts with WordPress.com may be too challenging for your coworkers, but if you create a site on a self-hosted WordPress install they will still need to have user accounts on that blog, and you will have to manage their accounts, passwords, etc. and do all of their support. If you stay with WordPress.com, you can leave that heavy lifting to us. :)