Go to Posts > All Posts, hover over the title of the post, click Edit and check the Post Revisions module for previous saved versions of the post.
If you're not seeing the Revisions module while on the editor screen, click Screen Options (top right corner of your Admin page) http://en.support.wordpress.com/screen-options/ to activate it. Then select the post and page modules to include them. http://en.support.wordpress.com/modules/#list-of-modules Then you ought to be able to go here > Dashboard > All Posts > Posts and locate the post and recover it from post revisions.
If you cannot locate the post for locating and restoring a post revision, and it's not in your Trash folder http://en.support.wordpress.com/trash/ then you will not be able to recover it. http://en.support.wordpress.com/trash/#restoring-from-trash
When you start a new post, add the title, set it to private and then publish it. When you are done with the post, set it back to publish and update it. The problem with posts disappearing when saved as a draft has been around for a while, but only seems to hit a small number of people randomly.
The other choice is to get and use an offline blog client such as Windows Live Writer (Windows) or Ecto (Mac) and then everything is saved on your computer and when you are done with the post, you actually publish it directly from the blog client software. See here for offline blog editors so you don't have to go through this again http://en.support.wordpress.com/xml-rpc