A Recent Posts widget has nothing to display until your publish a post.
A Categories widget has nothing that can be displayed until your publish a post.
A Links widget has nothing to display until your create a blogroll in your Links section in your dashboard.
P.S. Please forgive the “your” where “you” is intended. I am visually challenged and my app app does not catch those. Unless I tediously focus and examine each an every word before clicking “submit” they bypass me and I don’t have the time to do that tedious checking.
The widgets aren’t showing because you messed with their Visibility settings: you set them to display on author pages only. Open each widget, click the Visibility tab, set the second pulldown to “–Select–” (so that nothing is selected), Save.